Russia makes the top 10 list of least peaceful countries.

Kalashnikov Russia weapons trade
Russian Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov with a rifle at the International Defense Exhibition in Abu Dhabi, February 22, 2015.

Russia has one of the highest per capita rates of weapons exports, according to the report, and is highly militarized, which partially explains its rank on this list.

Its engagement in the Syrian conflict increased the country's number of deaths from external conflict, and overall approval of its leadership declined from 35% to just over 30% from 2008 to 2018.

It is the least peaceful country in its region, according to the report. 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is at high risk for severe flooding, contributing to the likelihood of future conflict.

Democratic Republic of the Congo violence
A body of a woman on the ground after she and four other women were killed in Paida near Beni in North Kivu Province of Democratic Republic of Congo, December 7, 2018.
Goran Tomasevic/REUTERS

Violence in the DRC is interfering with health workers' ability to treat the country's most recent Ebola outbreak, which has claimed 1,396 lives in that country, according to the World Health Organization.

Gangs and militia groups attack healthcare facilities, killing a Cameroonian doctor working to control the outbreak earlier this year.


Rising violence in Libya, coupled with its high risk for flooding, make it the eighth-least peaceful country in the world.

Libya violence
Fighters loyal to Libya's UN-backed government with RPGs during clashes with forces loyal to Khalifa Haftar, on the outskirts of Tripoli, May 25, 2019.
Goran Tomasevic/REUTERS

Violence in the Central African Republic costs the country approximately 47% of its GDP.

Central African Republic violence anti-balaka
Anti-Balaka militia members with weapons in the town of Bocaranga, Central African Republic, April 28, 2017.
Baz Ratner/Reuters

Seleka rebels and Anti-Balaka militia members continue to clash in the Central African Republic, pushing the country into chaos and creating an internally displaced population of 620,000, with 570,000 refugees headed to neighboring countries like Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, according to Reuters.

Somalia is at significant risk for drought, making the country more prone to conflict.

Somalia dangerous drought.JPG
A woman carries a jerrycan while her daughter washes dishes at a camp for internally displaced people from drought-hit areas, in Dollow, Somalia, April 4, 2017.
Zohra Bensemra/REUTERS

In 2018, Iraq saw a decrease in state-backed violence and in the number of refugees and internally displaced persons as a percentage of its population.

iraq isis smoke war
A man returns to his village after it was liberated from ISIS, in Qayyara, Iraq, October 22, 2016. The fumes in the background are from oil wells set ablaze by ISIS militants.
REUTERS/Alaa Al-Marjani

Still, Iraq deals with significant conflict, both internal and external. The are still remnants of ISIS, despite its official defeat, in part because divisions in Iraq's security forces have undercut efforts to eliminate the group.

Yemen remains the site of the world's worst humanitarian crisis, as it is still locked in a proxy war between Saudi Arabia and Iran.

yemen children starving
A severely malnourished boy rests on a hospital bed at the Aslam Health Center, Hajjah, Yemen in October 2018.
Hani Mohammed/AP

South Sudan's ongoing conflict, as well as its high risk for climate disaster, contribute to its placement in the GPI.

South Sudan violence .JPG
George Philipas/Reuters

Syria's conflicts place it high on the list, although it is no longer the least peaceful country.

A fighter from the SDF carrying weapons as he looks toward the northern town of Tabqa, Syria.
A Syrian Democratic Forces fighter looking toward the town of Tabqa in northern Syria.
Syrian Democratic Forces, via AP, File

Syria is now GPI's second least peaceful country in the world. The GPI cites ISIS' defeat in the town of Baghuz earlier this year as key to moving the country from the first spot to the second.

Afghanistan is the least peaceful country in the world, according to the index.

Afghanistan Taliban
Taliban members at the site of the execution of three men accused of murdering a couple during a robbery in Ghazni Province, April 18, 2015.

Afghanistan was designated the least peaceful country in the world by the GPI in 2019, supplanting Syria.

Violence in Afghanistan cost it 47% of its GDP, and the ongoing conflict killed 3,804 people last year, including 927 children — the highest number ever in the country, according to the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan.

Afghan citizens feel 20% less safe than they did in 2008, according to the GPI. Confidence in the country's military has fallen by more than 31 percentage points since 2013.