• SpaceX, the rocket company founded by Elon Musk, has been developing a launch site in south Texas since 2014.
  • The facility is located in about 17 miles east of Brownsville, one of the most impoverished US cities, and surrounds a small community called Boca Chica Village.
  • SpaceX initially planned to launch a dozen commercial payloads a year from the site. Now it's using the private spaceport to develop Starship: a rocket designed to send people to Mars.
  • Business Insider recently visited the area and spoke with locals. Here's what we saw and heard.
  • Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

In June 2012, SpaceX quietly started buying up properties in Boca Chica, Texas: a remote, rugged, and sleepy beach community in the southernmost tip of the state.

Two years later, Elon Musk's company gained approval from federal, state, and local governments to build what he said would be the world's first commercial spaceport. By late 2018, however, SpaceX converted the facility into skunkworks for development of a giant, fully reusable space vehicle called Starship.

A completed Starship (formerly called Big Falcon Rocket) would have a giant spaceship sitting atop a powerful, reusable booster. If all goes according to plan, the launch system could stand nearly 400 feet tall, lower the cost of accessing space by a factor of 10, and enable humanity to walk upon Mars in the mid-2020s and build a sustainable city there in the 2050s

SpaceX's launch site is unique for other reasons, though — including the fact that a small village of people live inside it. Some residents can see this futuristic vision of spaceflight being built and tested from the windows of their homes.

To gain a better understanding of the site and its future, Business Insider traveled to Boca Chica, met with residents, spoke to local experts, and took a look around. We even witnessed the very first "hop" of a stubby steel Starship prototype called Starhopper.

Here's what SpaceX's south Texas launch site is like, what we saw there, and some of the things we heard.

Boca Chica is one of the southernmost point in the US, which is helpful for launching rockets. Closer to Earth's equator, the planet's rotation can add valuable speed, which helps save fuel.

A satellite view of Boca Chica, Texas, where SpaceX is building a rocket launch site.
Google Earth; Landsat/Copernicus

Getting to SpaceX's site there requires some effort — it's roughly 20 miles from the Brownsville-South Padre Island International Airport, which can handle only about 0.1% of the volume that an airport like LAX can.

A SpaceX sign on Remedios Avenue.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Highway 4 takes you to the site. The drive mostly cuts through wild and uninhabited scenery. At some points, the Rio Grande sits no more than 1,000 feet from the road.

Part of the road was repaved after SpaceX moved in to the area.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The US-Mexico border wall sits just south of the highway. A few miles into the drive, it abruptly ends.

Farmers work fields on both sides of the fence.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

A Border Patrol checkpoint awaits anyone using the road. Airplanes, balloons, and drones also fly over the region, scouting for undocumented people who've crossed over.

Vehicles leaving Boca Chica are often stopped by border patrol agents.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

SpaceX's facility is located 17 miles east of Brownsville, which has a population of about 420,000 (combined with neighboring Harlingen). It's often listed as one of the poorest cities in the US, yet it's among the nation's fastest-growing urban areas.

A sign of economic struggle in Brownsville.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

But closer to SpaceX's site sits a wide-open wilderness: Boca Chica State Park and Las Palomas Wildlife Management Area.

A distant view of SpaceX's Starhopper rocket ship prototype from Highway 4 in Boca Chica, Texas.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Wetlands host flocks of birds during migrations, and clay mounds called lomas support a diversity of native and often endangered species. Even ocelots are occasionally seen traipsing through the area.

Getty Images

One of the first and most obvious signs of a spaceport is Stargate: a two-story, multi-million-dollar facility built by the University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley. SpaceX uses it as a control center during test launches.

SpaceX workers rush to and from this facility to the launchpad during tests.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The company is known for getting a "Rocket Rd" sign set up at each one of its facilities around the US.

Although this road is technically named Joanna Street.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

A handful of people live in Boca Chica year-round, but most residents are part-time. Many come from northern Texans, though others hail from far-away states. Sam Clauson, shown below, lives primarily in South Dakota.

Sam Clauson, a resident of Boca Chica Village, on a motorbike.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The brilliant sunsets, abundant birds, warm weather, relative isolation, and natural quiet were a big draw for many residents.

Sam Clauson's bay-side property.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Boca Chica life is not always easy, though. In 1967, Hurricane Beulah — a Category 5 storm — battered and flooded the area, which at the time was home to a newly established Polish community called Kennedy Shores.

Hurricanes are a persistent threat in the Gulf Coast. Dolly blasted the area during the 2008 season.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The storm destroyed buildings, fouled utilities, and washed away a lot of plats. Mayor Stanley Piotrowicz later renamed the community Kopernik Shores, after Nikolai Kopernik (or Nicolaus Copernicus) — a Polish astronomer known for placing the sun, not Earth, at the center of the universe.

The husk of an abandoned hotel in Boca Chica Village, including a tiled bathroom.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Source: FAA

After Piotrowicz' death, the hamlet was informally renamed Boca Chica Village.

Weems Road in Boca Chica Village.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

In addition to braving severe weather, residents of the Boca Chica area must get their water supplies trucked in, since no mains run out to the area.

A water truck barrels down Highway 4.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Potable water is stored in large cisterns, like these two between homes on Weems Road.

Two homes on Weems Road.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The summers are also sweltering. Residents say it's difficult to do anything outside except during the morning and evening.

A sunset in Boca Chica, Texas.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Muddy ruts in unpaved roads can easily trap unsuspecting vehicles driving through Boca Chica Village.

Word of advice: Do not drive down Esperson Street.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Despite these challenges, SpaceX saw the area as promising spot for a private spaceport. The company used a subsidiary called Dogleg Park LLC (a "dogleg" is a direction-changing rocket maneuver) to buy up properties like this one.

"Gate D" is a home the company turned into a storage and shipping facility.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The company mailed letters to some homeowners about buying them out. Many held onto their properties; some residents said the offers were mediocre, others had no interest in leaving.

"For sale" signs are seen in the windows of some of the Boca Chica houses.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

By 2014, SpaceX had enough land — and approval from government stakeholders — to officially announce its plans to develop Boca Chica into a spaceport.

One of SpaceX's launch control centers west of Boca Chica Village.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The company trucked in two large spacecraft-tracking antenna that it had acquired from NASA.

SpaceX uses NASA antennas to track spacecraft after they launch.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

It also built a 632-kilowatt solar energy farm to power its site operations.

The array is powerful enough to supply dozens of homes with 100% of their electricity needs.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The ground in the area is porous, allowing water to infiltrate and destabilize heavy and tall structures like the ones SpaceX planned to build.

A great blue heron on Boca Chica Beach.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The company hoped to find bedrock to support a launchpad, water and lightning towers, and other hefty structures. But it said it did not find any.

A May 2014 rendering of a Falcon Heavy rocket at SpaceX's south Texas launch site near Boca Chica Beach.
SpaceX via FAA

SpaceX's vision for its Texas site was to launch up to one Falcon-class rocket per month from Boca Chica: about 10 missions on its Falcon 9 and two on its Falcon Heavy vehicles.

SpaceX's Falcon Heavy rocket lifts off its launchpad for the first time on February 6, 2018.
SpaceX/Flickr (public domain)

In hopes of making that possible, the company dumped 310,000 cubic yards of soil — about 22,000 truckloads' worth — onto the ground to compact or "surcharge" it in order to prevent launch-site structures from sinking and leaning.

Water floods part of SpaceX's south Texas launch site.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

While the soil piled up, though, SpaceX suffered two rocket explosions in Florida: one in 2015 during a cargo launch, and another in 2016 during a ground test. The incidents consumed resources and focus away from south Texas.

SpaceX's Falcon 9 explodes during a test on the launch pad in Cape Canaveral, Florida on September 1, 2016.

By early 2018, after years of waiting for the extra soil in Boca Chica to settle, Musk said the company would no longer use the spaceport to launch Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets.

A giant buoy greets beach-goers passing Boca Chica Village.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Instead, he said, the company would dedicate its south Texas site to the development of a new spacecraft capable of sending people to Mars: Starship (then called Big Falcon Rocket).

An illustration of SpaceX's upcoming Starship spaceship (left), Super Heavy rocket booster (right), and an integrated Starship-Super Heavy launch system (center).
© Kimi Talvitie

Workers began swarming the area. Some trucked in huge tanks for storing liquid methane. That's the fuel Starship's Raptor engines use. (SpaceX hopes to one day manufacture methane from existing resources on Mars.)

Liquid methane storage tanks at SpaceX's south Texas launch site.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The company also hauled in enormous liquid-oxygen tanks (for burning the methane) and nitrogen to keep the liquids chilled prior to launch.

SpaceX's south Texas launch site in April 2019.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Before long, welders were putting together 30-foot-wide cylinders of polished stainless steel metal.

Cranes and cherry-picker trucks at SpaceX's south Texas launch site.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

By early January, SpaceX had built a towering rocket ship called Starhopper — a prototype for the full Mars spaceship — in Boca Chica. It's not designed to fly into space, but instead to complete "hops" no more than about 3 miles high.

The person at the bottom is for scale.
Elon Musk/SpaceX via Twitter

The company also erected this onion-shaped tent in its work yard, where Starhopper was built.

SpaceX's onion tent in its operations yard.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Gale-force winds blew off Starhopper's nosecone in late January, but Musk suggested this wasn't a big deal. Workers later crawled the 60-foot-tall vehicle down Highway 4.

SpaceX workers crawl the lower section of the Test Hopper out to a launch pad near Boca Chica Beach, Texas, on March 8, 2019.
Maria Pointer (bocachicaMaria)

Then they hauled it on top of the giant dirt mound where SpaceX had built a rudimentary launchpad.

The Starhopper following its second launch on April 6, 2019.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Engineers attached a new Raptor rocket engine to the Starhopper and put it through a series of tests.

Each Raptor rocket engine is about the size of a large van or small delivery truck.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The company "hopped" the Starhopper for the first time on April 3, sending it just a couple of feet off the launch pad. It launched again on April 6, going even higher.

SpaceX's "Starhopper" prototype for a larger planned Mars launch system, called Starship, rockets a few feet off the ground on April 6, 2019.
Elon Musk/SpaceX via Twitter

Sources: Business Insider, Twitter ( 1, 2)

During the first "hop," Business Insider was on the property of Maria and Ray Pointer, which sits east of SpaceX's work yard and west of Boca Chica Village.

Maria and Ray Pointer on April 8, 2019.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Their house is about 1.8 miles away from the launchpad. The roar of the single Raptor engine was so loud that it shook the walls and knocked off part of a window treatment.

The flame is a safety measure that burns fuel vapors.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The view from their front and back yards used to show Starhopper. Now they can see SpaceX's next upcoming Starship prototype: a vehicle that may launch into orbit around Earth.

A garden in the foreground, and a rocket ship in the background.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

The prototypes that SpaceX builds are also visible through the couple's bedroom windows.

A view into the future can be had from the Pointers' home.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Maria said the sunrise sometimes reflects off the surface of the mirror-polished rocket bodies in the morning. She often admires the scene when juicing oranges, she added.

An orbital prototype under construction.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

But the Pointers' and their neighbors' close-up look at the future of spaceflight is not always pleasant. At times, they said, construction noises and flood lights create a nuisance throughout the night.

A SpaceX work yard west of the Pointers' home.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

They've also had issues with trespassers, some of whom are looking for construction jobs from SpaceX, while others just want an unobstructed view.

The Pointers put up new fencing and signs to dissuade unwelcome visitors.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

During the launch and engine tests, off-duty police officers hired by SpaceX close off the road to the launchpad and Boca Chica Beach, with the permission of Cameron County's judge. SpaceX also frequently closes the road so workers can move equipment.

A hard checkpoint on Highway 4 blocks off access to Boca Chica Beach in south Texas on April 3, 2019.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Residents can move freely during these road closures, but their visitors and guests cannot. This has occasionally led to heated confrontations between villagers and police.

Business Insider was threatened with arrest after our vehicle got stuck in the mud on our way to the Pointers' home.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

However, SpaceX appears determined to make history at its unique (and often challenging) base in south Texas. Higher and higher "hops" are planned for this month, and the company may soon complete its orbital prototype.

A sign for a historic site juxtaposed with SpaceX's Starhopper Mars rocket ship prototype.
Dave Mosher/Business Insider

Musk has also said he may provide an update on the Starship program as soon as June 20.

Elon Musk and SpaceX are developing a stainless-steel rocket ship called Starship.
© Kimi Talvitie; NASA; Mark Brake/Getty Images; Samantha Lee/Business Insider

Source: Twitter

Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX's president and COO, said recently that a full-scale Starship should launch in 2020, followed by a Mars cargo mission in 2024. Crewed missions would come sometime after that, making Boca Chica perhaps the last place an astronaut stands before careening toward the red planet.

Starhopper, a prototype of SpaceX's Starship rocket for Mars, stands vertically at the company's southernmost launch site in Boca Chica, Texas.
Copyright Jaime Almaguer

Source: Twitter